Power-to-X makes it possible to convert renewable energy into hydrogen and other climate-friendly fuels that can replace fossil energy
There is an enormous potential for renewable energy on Danish soil and in Danish waters. In Danish waters alone, offshore wind farms can be established which can produce more than twice as much electricity as a fully electrified Danish society will require.
The potential for offshore wind power exceeds the electricity needs in Denmark.
In addition to a full electrification of Danish energy consumption, the enormous potential makes it possible to convert power from renewable energy sources into gas, hydrogen and RE fuels – also called Power-to-X.
Denmark’s extensive RE potential can be used for direct electrification, and for indirect electrification via Power-to-X for sectors that cannot operate on electricity.
Power-to-X makes it possible to convert renewable energy from the sun and wind into green hydrogen and other climate-friendly fuels. This is done using electrolysis – a process whereby water is split into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. The hydrogen can be used directly or be converted into hydrogen-based products such as ammonia, methanol, methane and diesel products, replacing fossil fuels in sectors that cannot run directly on electricity or batteries.
Denmark’s extensive renewable energy resources mean that it can play a key role in the development of the green fuels of the future, and it is important to already start looking at how the energy infrastructure should be developed to support new Power-to-X supply chains.
THERE ARE THREE GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR GREEN HYDROGEN:
- Direct use, eg as fuel for local transport, process industry and steel and chemical production.
- Green fuel in the form of ammonia for large energy consumption, eg sea transport.
- Green fuels in sectors where carbon-based fuels are particularly suitable, eg aviation fuel, chemical production and industry.
The coupling between electricity production and the heating, transport and hydrogen sectors can enable us to handle the very large fluctuations in the production and consumption of energy. Power-to-X can be seen as a flexible off-take for the electricity system that can collect and transform wind and solar power generated at times when it is plentiful and cheap – while also allowing the expensive, scarce and sought-after energy to be used for other purposes.
ELECTRIFICATION OF DENMARK
If Denmark succeeds in getting PtX plants to interact meaningfully with the rest of the energy system, we can ensure that they not only supply fuels for sea transport, aviation, industry etc., they will also enable Denmark to undertake a comprehensive electrification – one of the primary forces driving the fulfilment of the Danish climate goals.
Denmark’s electricity consumption is expected to more than double by 2040, and a steadily increasing proportion of this will go to Power-to-X.
About Power-to-X and green hydrogen
Power-to-X describes how we can convert renewable energy into hydrogen and other climate-friendly fuels. It happens with the help of electrolysis - a technology in which water is cleaved into hydrogen and oxygen using green electricity.